Carl is Deputy Director of the IFS and an editor of the annual IFS Green Budget. He is also a member of the Social Security Advisory Committee and the advisory panel of the Office for Budget Responsibility. His recent research has included analysis of the impact of the financial crisis and association recession, and the Government's response, on the UK's public finances. He has examined the effect of UK pension reforms on the public finances, retirement behaviour, labour market mobility, incentives to save and inequality, and has evaluated the large scale pilots of the Education Maintenance Allowance, the Pathways-to-Work reforms to incapacity benefits and the Saving Gateway matched savings vehicle. He previously served as a specialist advisor to the House of Commons Work and Pensions Select Committee.